Derby is a lightweight relational database implemented completely in Java. Using the JDBC driver provided, Derby can be embedded in any Java applications.
In 1997, Cloudscape Inc., a start-up in Oakland, California, developed a database engine called JBMS, which was later renamed as Cloudscape. From 1999 to 2001, Cloudscape was acquired first by Informix Software, and by IBM, and its name was changed to IBM Cloudscape. In 2004, IBM contributed the code to the Apache Software Foundation as Derby. In 2005, Derby became a Apache DB subproject.
Derby implements a combination of physical and logical logging. For actions on the same page, it uses physical logging. For BTree operations, which might affect several pages, it uses physical redo and logical undo.
Derby implements ARIES with slight variance. It allows fuzzy checkpointing. However, unlike ARIES implementation, it does not store a dirty page list in checkpoint records. Instead, during checkpoint, Derby flushes all database pages to disk. The checkpoint control files contains "undoLWM" and "RedoLWM". "UndoLWM" is set as the the starting LSN of the oldest active transaction when checkpoint starts, and "RedoLWM" is the the current LSN of the checkpoint.
JBMS, Cloudscape, Java DB